I am sometimes asked about schools here in Russia. How do public schools in Russia compare to schools in America? How are they different? I have mentioned various aspects of how our kids have done in school all along. I have not, however, given much of an overview of how public secondary schools in Russia differ from their American counterparts. I have also said that we have been basically pleased, but I have not given too many details about the school system itself and how things differ here from my “other world” in South Carolina. Of course, I have to summarize without getting into too many details. I apologize to my Russian readers.
Traditionally, children have begun school at the age of seven in Russia. Fairly recently that regulation was changed to six and a half. Still children here start public school at an older age than kids in America, where most begin with five year kindergarten. Russian school goes through the eleventh, not the twelfth grade. Elementary school extends from grades 1-4; middle school is grades 5-9, and high school is 10-11. Usually the elementary, middle and high schools are at the same physical location, whereas in America they can be miles from each other. The schools are also normally designated by numbers. Gabriel goes to School #5. Occasionally you will see a school named for someone famous, e.g., “Imeni Pushkina” is named for the famous Russian poet. In South Carolina we had Chandler Creek, Skyland, Blue Ridge, etc. They keep things more basic here in Russia. The numbers go up into the hundreds in large cities like St. Petersburg or Moscow.
All schools start in Russia the same day: September 1st is the “Day of Knowledge” throughout the country. Children dress up and take flowers to the teacher. There is a big presentation at the school. Everyones meets outside in the school yard and children gather by classes. There is the formal commencement of the school year as we parents look on. It is pretty impressive. I cannot fathom how much money is spent on flowers for the Day of Knowledge all over Russia! Of course, that is just my Western capitalistic curiosity. Here they cannot fathom why it is that American schools in even the same state start on different days. I really do not have an answer to that question. Also, here transportation is up to the families. In South Carolina there was always the option of the school bus. Kids here usually walk or take a city bus. And now you even see a number of cars outside the schools as parents drop their kids off at school. When I first came here years ago, you rarely saw that. Since Gabriel does not attend the closest school he walks to the bus stop every morning and takes a city bus. Usually his grandfather picks him up and brings him home. If that is not possible either Oksana or I walk to the school so he’ll have someone to walk home with. If we’re in a bind she sends a taxi. The cost is a little under $2.00.
Elementary school children have the same teacher for all the years they are at a school. Gabriel’s teacher, when he started last year, was Galina Mihailovna. She will be his teacher until he leaves elementary school. In our case that worked out well. He really came to love his teacher last year. She taught Oksana when she was in elementary school! She knew our situation and was very good for Gabriel. So when he started this year there was very little anxiety. He knew he was going to have the same teacher and basically the same classmates as last year. I suppose there are advantages and disadvantages compared to changing teachers and classmates every year, but for us there were clearly more advantages.
Students keep the same group of teachers for the different subjects in middle school and high school. That is, they have a different teacher for math, science, history, etc., but the set of teachers does not change. They will have the same teacher for math from the time they start middle school all the way through high school. It is the same for all courses. Now, if there is a severe problem then the parents can ask that their class have a different teacher. The “norm,” however is for them to keep the same set of teachers.
The program of study is pretty much a “lock-step” program. There are no electives. Everyone takes the same courses. The major courses and the grades they are taught are: History (5th-11th); Social Studies (6th -11th) ; Russian Grammar (2-11); Russian Literature (5-11); Foreign Language, usually English or German (2-11) Home Economics (1-11); P.E. (1-11); Art (1-7) and Music (1-7). There are also reading and penmanship courses for the younger children, of course. Math is also taught every year, and geography, biology, physics and chemistry start during middle school and must be taken every year in high school. There is also one course wherein the students are taught survival skills, military training, and First Aid (7-11). Since Roman’s classmates had already had courses he had not, we had to use tutors to “catch him up” last year.
Overall, I think most Americans would see this as a pretty rigorous course of study. Also, I would add that schools here are about academics. There is no equivalent really to the “Friday night football,” like in America. Also, the “social issues” of sexuality and gender identity are simply not considered the task of the school system in Russia. In America Roman had an openly gay teacher in the ninth grade. That is not allowed in Russia; President Putin is often critisized for this law in the West, but I do not see it being changed.
Another difference is that in elementary school students are allowed to have their cell phones with them. Students are allowed to call home when they need to. Again, I can see why American schools do not allow this practice. For us, the Russian way was a big help. When Gabriel was struggling last year with understanding a word or assignment, he could just call us. Sometimes his teacher would get on the phone and talk to Oksana to get the confusion cleared up. Also, Galina Mihailovna keeps her cell phone on her desk at all times. Oksana does not hesitate to call her if there is something she needs to pass on to her. She also promptly answers her phone and never seems distracted by the call. We don’t abuse it, but it helps to be able to do so when needed. She told Oksana she does that because it is always possible that parents need her promptly. Last week Gabriel had had some stomach problems, and Oksana called after school started to tell his teacher that he may have to excuse himself or even come home. Also, while we try not to take advantage of her kindness, Oksana has to call her sometimes in the evening to clear up confusion over an assignment. There is a very close “working” relationship between parents and teachers here.
Unlike in America, Gabriel does not get out of school the same time every day. We are given a schedule. He usually has four or five classes, depending on whether he has P.E., which he has three times a week. It is more structured than his physical education class in America. Students change into their exercise clothes and go through some fairly rigorous exercise routines. Still, even on his longer days, Gabriel gets home sooner than he did in South Carolina. Schools start about the same time in Russia and America, but Gabriel is usually home either at 12:30 or 1:30. While he gets home earlier, he has comparitively more homework here than he did in America. Further, even if it were not for the language issue with us, parents here almost have to work with their kids on homework. There is a lot of it, and it can be complicated. Oksana says it is like a combination of public school and home schooling here! She’s joking, but it is a fairly accurate description.
Finally, at the end of both, middle and high school, students in Russia have to take a rigorous set of standardized tests. They may have passed all their courses, but that does not mean they will pass these final standardized tests with flying colors. It is a big hurdle and an important one for getting into university. This created another problem when Roman started to school here. In Russia, you actually receive a certificate when you finish middle school. They will not accept you to high school if you don’t have the official certificate. Roman had finished the ninth grade in America, but naturally, had no certificate or diploma to show for it. Therefore, he had to repeat the ninth grade. Now, this was not a significant problem because we realized he really did not have the math and science courses which the other students had had. Finishing middle school here is obviously more significant here than in America. They even have a prom at the end of the year!
One reason for the certificate and prom is because college is an option after middle school. If a student qualifies by passing the college’s entrance exam and gets accepted into a college, he or she can forego the last two years of high school. A college in Russia is not the same as a university education. A college education continues your general education courses you would have taken in high school, but also provides the student with courses in his or her chosen vocation. So to go to college, you must qualify academically, but you also must be sure of your chosen profession—at least in general. Roman has known for some time he wanted to go into some sort of design, architecture or construction science. He shadowed my second born son in America who was a Construction Science major at Clemson and now is a project manager for a company that builds multi-housing units. Roman’s career aspirations were confirmed after seeing this work up close. So he will go to college for four years. At the end of that time he will have completed the same general education requirements that any high school student would take, but he will have already been taking courses pertaining to his career choice as well. The college is an architecture and civil engineering college. After completing his degree requirements there, he will have the option of going into the work force if he finds suitable employment in his field or he can continue with getting a higher education in a university setting.
The “switch” from the American school system has presented us with a few challenges, yet we are pleased. In addition to getting what we believe is a good education, Gabriel now communicates easily in Russian. Roman’s courses at college have been quite rigorous, and he has had to study hard. His classes go from 9am to 5pm every day Monday through Friday, and then he goes for half a day on Saturday. Yet both boys are happy with their schools. Certainly you will find parents and students here who are not happy. Some here believe it is too rigorous, and many believe the standardized tests are becoming more “Western.” For example, they have multiple choice answers now, which they did not have before. One had to write out one’s answers with no options listed. From our experience so far, however, we have been pleased.